beyond the grid

A New Plateau!

The next big thing is not parametrics. It's not a new geometry. It is more than that. The stances of Ghery, Eisenman, Libeskind, UNstudio, Hadid and others are pointing the direction. We get a taste of what lies beyond. Just as from the aesthetical exercises of HdeM or Zumthor.

We have left the certainty of geometry, logic and arithmetic. The substrate of the new metalevel is symbolic.

We don't want to follow the reductionist functional view in architecture. We don't like the uncommitted structuralist attitude toward the global challenges. We want to start cultivating the new plateau. To widen the perspective. We want to be pioneers in learning to construct within the symbolic, seriously.

The MAS class opens a forum, establishes a network and works on practical experiments.

 

Program Overview

This MAS class is a full-time one-year interdisciplinary class of about 12 graduate students interested in research on the next level of Computer Aided Architectural Design. This class contains 7 modules in theory, in basic skills about theory in technology and architecture, programming, electronics and CNC production of architectural artifacts. The main interest of the research is the reflection on the potentiality of the upcoming technologies for future architecture. The class starts on an abstract theoretical and philosophical level and ends in exercises in designing concepts of future architecture on the so called symbolic level.

The deadline for application is April.

Letter of acceptance comes in Mai.

The program starts in September and takes 12 month.

The program fee is 12'000 CHF.

Contact Mario Guala for details.

 

MAS 1202 foto

> buy the book, > download pdf (42 MB)

 

 

CAAD. Master of Advanced Studies. Architecture and Information
Prof. Dr. Ludger Hovestadt, Chair for Computer Aided Architectural Design, Institute for Technology in Architecture (ITA), Departement for Architecture, ETH Zürich, Switzerland

Today, information technology is ubiquitous. Most architects have a self-taught working knowledge of visualisation and computer-aided modelling techniques. In some places, there are specialised technical programmes, especially in the areas of parametric design and experimental computer-generated production. This specialist knowledge is not sufficient, however, to keep track of the medial, technical, organisational, economical and political developments in architecture. Information technology has become a driving force in every sphere of activity for architects. But these developments are as yet badly understood, and so their interpretation is narrow and the architectural landscape diffuse.

palmgarden

This programme is directed at architects, designers and creative people. It offers, for the first time, not technical specialisation but architectural integration on a higher technical level. It conveys profound insights into a variety of technical areas and prompts theoretical reflection as well as promoting an independent personal stance.

jencks

The programme is demanding. Technologies are becoming ever simpler and more accessible, but defining an individual position for an architect is becoming more and more difficult. We offer no formulas or solutions. We mistrust the attitude, taken by MIT for example, that popularises, and in doing so naturalises, technology. This, to our minds, amounts to a positioning for power by way of simplification: complexities are being externalised. We believe that this is not enough: technological creation has to be complemented by expertise, not just in technology, but also in creation.

program overview

module 1 theory: Theory and Information

palmgarden

Information is everywhere. The term 'information' is so powerful, yet we understand it so little. Information is information. It's neither energy nor is it matter (as Norbert Wiener claims). But this doesn't say a lot, and perhaps it isn't even accurate, because matter is a form of energy. What, though, is information? Perhaps the question is put the wrong way. Couldn't we ask instead: how can we use information? Especially seeing that computers are not machines but general machines. And in asking the question 'how?', other, unexpected, questions pose themselves, such as: how do we use rationality? How analytics? How do we use geometry, arithmetic, algebra? How can we produce stabilities? How can we use symbols, indices, signals? How calculations, functions, codings? How generalisations and abstractions? How concepts, words, texts, constructs, drawings? How infrastructures, medialities, narratives? Fictions, phantasms, specifications, definitions? How form, structure, topoi? How behaviour, sensation, reason, cognition, logic? How does the new come about? What do Deleuze and Guattari, Derrida, Habermas, Heidegger, Sartre, Wittgenstein, Nietzsche, Peirce, Boole, Poe, Hegel, Kant, Leibniz, Spinoza, Descartes, Aristotle, Plato and all the others have to say about it? - Curious yet?...

module 0 welcome: Living in a World of Abundant Potentiabilities

MAS_Mone

This programme is unlike any other. We take a different stance. Technology is not comfortable. We can't ask technology what's right and what's wrong, what's good or bad. These are our machines, we've made them. They are our statistics, our images, which we've created of our world. They are not 'The Truth' about earth or nature. So who can we complain to, if not ourselves? Who should we be afraid of? Elsewhere, you may hear people declare: "Nothing is scarier than the truth." (Al Gore). Globalisation, finance, climate, technological catastrophes, naturalisation, scarcities, wars, terrorism, fundamentalism, media overkill, educational crises... cool it! Our programme takes an optimistic perspective, from a new plateau: we have more energy than we need, we have fantastic potential. But we have to do it ourselves. We can't ask anybody else to do it for us. Not nature, not technology. Just ourselves.

module 2 A research: Design by Algorithms, or The Availability of Logical Thinking

boole

In 1854 George Boole developed an algebra that reflects logical thought (An Investigation of the Laws of Thought). Computers follow this type of algebra and externalise precisely what we call logical thinking (Turing, 1936; von Neumann, 1945). We may call it Turing Computing. Using computers, we are able, as creative people, to explore this logical 'think space'. We can discover phenomena never seen before. Multitudes of new images, geometries and artefacts become concrete constructions from a logical world. It's so simple: procedures, iterations, recursions, objects, rules, constraints, agents, text, drawing, imagery, video, morphing, topology, grammar, cellular automata, parametric geometry, simulation, generation, evolutionary algorithms, neural networks... all easily accessible and online.

This module offers practical exercises in logical order systems and delivers an introduction to corresponding thought. Technologies: processing, Java, Eclipse.

 

module 2 B development: Fiction

odyssee

It is always the great narratives, the big concepts that count. They are told, and retold, again and again. Over and over, they are reformulated, as poetry, as prose, as fiction, as definitions, as lists, as compositions, as tables, as forms, as user's guides, as formulas, as equations, as drawings, as pictures, as constructs, as machines, as software, as figures, as fusion, as dance, as theatre, as music; spoken, sung, gestured, as lectures, as deceptions, as orders, as advertising, in German, in English, in the 16th Century, in the 18th Century, today; as photography, as email, as text message, as a wiki, as a blog. Melville's Moby Dick, Edgar Allan Poe, Scorsese's Godfather, NASA's Apollo missions, Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey, Spielberg's Star Wars, Tati's Play Time, Koolhaas's New York, Jenck's postmodernism, Loo's Ornament, Wittgenstein's wordplay, Heidegger's 'Gestell'. What does Ovid tell us, what scholastics, what is the turn of meaning in Shakespeare, Goethe, Nietzsche, Bach, Mozart, Wagner, Stockhausen, what in Vatel, Bocuse, Ducasse or Adria, what in Leibniz, Newton, Descartes, Lagrange, Maxwell, Einstein; how do Popper, Feyerabend, Chomsky, Kurzweil articulate themselves, how Derrida, Deleuze and Guattari?

How are the big concepts reformulated and rephrased, over and over again? Element, substance, body, life, love, power, friendship, hospitality, fertility, symbolism, security, contemplation, freedom, fear, joy, nature, death, age, equilibrium, energy, matter, being, order, time. What are the narratives for their derived concepts: existence, health, childhood, vitality, progress, youth, intelligence, landscape, nutrition.

> see the blog of the actual class

module 3 A research: Design and Construction of Connected Artefacts, or:
The Global Availability of Physical Characteristics

palmgarden

Computers are general machines (Turing 1936). Not just all known, but also all future machines can be logically visualised through them. Computers are abstract from any physics (von Neumann, 1945). The networks of space and time (Baran, 1964, Licklider, 1960), reduced to minute, printed particles, connected with each other by electromagnetic modulations. Billions of them. Every computer, phone, machine. Design is no longer constructed from necessities, rather it condensates from the wealth of all possibilities. Rendered from virtual availability into concrete existence. And it's so simple: mechanics from CNC production, electrical controls from do-it-yourself kits, general processors, accessible networks, a bit of software.

This module offers practical exercises in the established manifestations of virtual information technology order systems, and an introduction to corresponding thought patterns. Over the last few years, electronic prototyping has evolved to the extent where any interested lay person can very quickly develop electronic gadgets and connect them to the mediality of the internet. This module gives an overview over the technological concepts and delivers a guide to building your own gadgets in electronics, software and mechanics. The Internet of Things, distributed computing, remote procedure calls, TCP/IP, URL, Google Earth, sensors, actuators, Arduino, automation, interaction technologies: processing, wiring, CNC production.

 

module 2 C application: Advanced Geometry Modelling

palmgarden

Generative Components, CATIA, Pro/ENGINEER, Solid Works, Rhino, Revit, scripting, Grasshopper, processing, OpenGL... - Non-Euclidian geometry is now universally available. Only ten years ago, it belonged to the experts, 25 years ago to visionaries; 40 years ago the only people who had access to it were mathematicians. Today, the machines using it are on every desk, the software on every laptop, and the tutorials on YouTube. Secularisation. The fascination with its potential of this geometry, iterated a millionfold in blogs. But in actual fact, designing buildings or developing an architectural style, even in this environment, is only easy at first glance. How, for example, can you generate the continuities of, for instance, Hadid, UNStudio, NOX, Eisenman, Gehry, or the geometrical discontinuities of Liebeskind, Herzog & de Meuron, Ito or Sejima? How can we proceed in technology, without getting stuck within a very short time? How can we plan such buildings at a rate that we're used to from regular geometry? How can we preserve our creative freedom within that technological complexity? How can we retain the flexibility of a small geometrical experiment when we apply it to a building that has been thought through in every detail?

© ETH Zürich, CAAD, 01.2012

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

module 1 theory: Theory and Information

palmgarden

Information is everywhere. The term 'information' is so powerful, yet we understand it so little. Information is information. It's neither energy nor is it matter (as Norbert Wiener claims). But this doesn't say a lot, and perhaps it isn't even accurate, because matter is a form of energy. What, though, is information? Perhaps the question is put the wrong way. Couldn't we ask instead: how can we use information? Especially seeing that computers are not machines but general machines. And in asking the question 'how?', other, unexpected, questions pose themselves, such as: how do we use rationality? How analytics? How do we use geometry, arithmetic, algebra? How can we produce stabilities? How can we use symbols, indices, signals? How calculations, functions, codings? How generalisations and abstractions? How concepts, words, texts, constructs, drawings? How infrastructures, medialities, narratives? Fictions, phantasms, specifications, definitions? How form, structure, topoi? How behaviour, sensation, reason, cognition, logic? How does the new come about? What do Deleuze and Guattari, Derrida, Habermas, Heidegger, Sartre, Wittgenstein, Nietzsche, Peirce, Boole, Poe, Hegel, Kant, Leibniz, Spinoza, Descartes, Aristotle, Plato and all the others have to say about it? - Curious yet?...

module 1 theory: Theory and Information

palmgarden

Information is everywhere. The term 'information' is so powerful, yet we understand it so little. Information is information. It's neither energy nor is it matter (as Norbert Wiener claims). But this doesn't say a lot, and perhaps it isn't even accurate, because matter is a form of energy. What, though, is information? Perhaps the question is put the wrong way. Couldn't we ask instead: how can we use information? Especially seeing that computers are not machines but general machines. And in asking the question 'how?', other, unexpected, questions pose themselves, such as: how do we use rationality? How analytics? How do we use geometry, arithmetic, algebra? How can we produce stabilities? How can we use symbols, indices, signals? How calculations, functions, codings? How generalisations and abstractions? How concepts, words, texts, constructs, drawings? How infrastructures, medialities, narratives? Fictions, phantasms, specifications, definitions? How form, structure, topoi? How behaviour, sensation, reason, cognition, logic? How does the new come about? What do Deleuze and Guattari, Derrida, Habermas, Heidegger, Sartre, Wittgenstein, Nietzsche, Peirce, Boole, Poe, Hegel, Kant, Leibniz, Spinoza, Descartes, Aristotle, Plato and all the others have to say about it? - Curious yet?...

module 3 B development: Innovation

palmgarden

'Whatever you call out into the forest, the forest calls back at you.' We call out 'into the forest' with statistics, analyses, methodology, automaton, diagnoses, references, illustrations, didactics, safeguards. And for a long time, we got a lot of responses to these reductions and concentrations. The harvest was rich. But today, you could be forgiven for getting the impression that this way of going about things has exhausted itself. There is talk of 'limits to growth'. There are calls for discipline, empathy, sustainability.
But might it not be the case that we could see further, solve more problems, master more riddles, if we were to bypass the shortest possible route, the logical arguments and stringent analysis? If, instead of putting to one side - as so often demanded by critics of modernity - methodology, because we've always known about it and now demand naturalisation and aestheticisation, we were to learn how to juggle the established methodologies, specialisms and manifold forms of articulation. Creative people know that problems and their solutions twist, turn and change the moment you articulate their narrative in a different medium or language. We might call this meta-rational.
How then is it possible, in a networked world of ubiquitous accessibility, to look and listen, to ask questions, to examine, without blocking your own possibilities for the new, without losing the flexibility of future twists and turns. If we are looking for the new, we cannot depend on our established disciplines, methods and expertise. The new is neither out there, nor is it inside us; it doesn't lie rooted in our language or in differences of iteration. These manifestations of the concept of scarcity are what blocks our view. Could such a concept still be adequate in the context of a trillion links referenced by Google? The hypothesis of this module is that the new resides in the potential that derives from the concentration of that which is explicitly and rationally accessible. It lies in cultivating the rational.

module 3 C application: Mass Customised Production

palmgarden

It's contemporary CNC production methods that make non-standard buildings and the use of non-Euclidean geometry possible. Worlds of a difference lie between the qualities of Peter Cook's Kunsthaus in Graz (2003) and the Norpark Cable Railway by Zaha Hadid (2007). Using a master geometry and a continuous digital workflow from design via construction right through to production and logistics, buildings can be realised in freeform geometry at prices normally associated with serial production 'in the grid'. Industrial production has emancipated itself from the grid, or the table, as the principle of order, coordination and logistics. Beyond that, 90% of architecture that is being built could be parametrically modularised, and could therefore be manufactured in CNC production without significantly affecting the architectural result in terms of spatiality, materials or construction. (Other economic sectors show that industrialisation makes possible an increase in productivity of 60% and a reduction in costs of 30% across the board. Applied to the construction industry - globally the largest economic sector - this results in gigantic amounts.) The idea that industrial production brings about a uniform system of construction has been reversed: now systems are being developed for individual buildings and make possible a fantastical architecture in the first place.

So how do you dismantle buildings into parametric modules? How can you actually build Coop Himmelblau, Hadid, Gehry, UNStudio? How can you mass produce bespoke everyday architecture? Modularisation, standardisation, normalisation, parametrisation, deformation, configuration, integration, serialisation, master geometry, building construction, building services, building logistics, production code, production tools, production facilities.

 

module 4 theory: Archtecture and Information

palmgarden

What could be more fantastical, of more consequence, than building a new city? Or a new house? Hunting a hog or ploughing a field is easy enough, you can follow a natural order. But building a new city? That's pure imagination, pure virtuality. On a small, carefully chosen and defined plot of land, a city can be anything we want it to be. There, in that particular abstraction of territory, there are no qualitative boundaries, except those set by our own imagination, which in turn has been shaped over time by the rhythms of the fields that lie under the sun.
Today, thus our contention, it is no longer the cultivation of fields that is being visualised and whose surpluses find articulation in the cities. Through information technology it is our cities themselves that are being cultivated. Today we look for virtualisations and architectural articulations on a new plateau. What, then, are the imaginings, the thought patterns that are being shown to us by Vitruvius, Palladio, Ledoux, Durand, Semper, Loos,
Wright, Corbusier, Sullivan, Rossi, Krier, Ungers, Alexander, Otto, Venturi, Eisenman, Libeskind, Hadid, Gehry, Lynn, Herzog & de Meuron, Zumthor, Koolhaas? What are the virtualities, what the urbanities described by deconstructivism, structuralism, post-structuralism, minimalism, functionalism, international style, modernity, postmodernism, existentialism, phenomenology, behaviourism, positivism, vitalism?
Let's cultivate these ideas for our new architecture and our new cities.

module 6 A research: Designing Beyond the Problematic, or: Design Under the Premise of General Availabilities

SOM

With all these manifold availabilities, we, with our problems, tend to get in our own way. We can't see the wood for the trees. In view of all the analysis and statistics, we are blind to the causes. We don't see what next steps are adequate. (We don't want to keep talking about 'solutions' any more, seeing that we want to go beyond thinking in terms of 'problems'.) Yet we could create approaches to issues such as urbanity, sophistication, modes of living, friendliness, inspiration, openness, concentration, creativity, liveliness, differentiation, narratives, styles and fashions, beyond individual parameters. A new way of looking at things in a new environment of information makes these creative potentials available to us. We are calling this 'Non-Turing-Computing'.

This module offers practical exercises in meta-logical order systems and gives an introduction to the corresponding thought processes. Self-organising maps, reaction diffusion diagrams, JAVA, Eclipse.

 

module 6 C application: Building Operation Models

palmgarden

Between 30% and 60% of the investment cost for new buildings goes towards building technology. Building technology itself develops from central, hierarchical systems - so called central building control systems - to locally distributed and IT-networked systems. The focus is no longer on the temperature, brightness or level of humidity that is being brought about; instead, what's being created are atmospheres for animated discussion, concentrated study, security, access, maintenance, logistics, navigations, displays, transmissions, readiness, availability, efficiencies, services, management, accounting.

In hospitals, within 6 years of completion, running the building costs more than its original investment for construction. In offices, it's 10 years. Thus, new business models evolve. Buildings become smart. Services are being articulated into the building by its users, rather than functions being produced by the building for the user. Middleware, building services, building automation, SPS, PLC, zigbee, digitalSTROM, UIN, facilities management, persistence, multi-hierarchical databases, SAP integration, WEB, mobile phones, interaction, tracking, accounting...

 

module 5 B development: Articulation

palmgarden

It's so easy to play the individual disciplinary, medial and technological channels. There's no problem producing a satellite picture showing us the hole in the ozone layer, calculating a model that simulates the climate on planet earth, publishing a video report about the revolution in Egypt, generating imagery that shows the phenomena at work in our brain, developing the crumple zone for a new car, making an artificial nose to aid wine tasting, designing a curved facade for a new airport building, going for a week-long hike in the Amazon, attending a three-day conference in Seoul, manufacturing a computer chip in Taiwan, selling your old printer on eBay to a man in Stockholm, making a phone call to the slums of Mumbai, buying shares in a start-up in Chicago... there's no problem doing anything we like.
The many standards we use: ASCII, dtp, html, TCP, JPEG, MP3, AVI, Linux, AJAX, USB, UPnP, DXF, MEL, TCL, JAVA, GSM, GPS, UPC, IBAN - there are thousands. And the technologies we use for the development of our buildings: building layout generators, building structure simulation, building automation, finite elements analysis, photorealistic rendering and printing, one-of-a-kind production, 3D printing... Or, more generally: energy harvesting, ubiquitous logic, worldwide logistics, mobile phones, social media, micro-banking... An ever more densely populated carpet of electronic media. The idea that for a development project, for research, for thought itself one of these channels could suffice - and it doesn't matter whether it be a classical channel such as a scientific journal, a lecture, a political book, a journalist's picture, an eye witness report, a technical development, a new product, or any of the new media channels - becomes increasingly absurd. More and more, these channels can be utilised automatically; rendering content into any of these channels becomes easier all the time, and it's being done more and more frequently. The channels themselves keep getting broader. And increasingly it's not us, but the channels that determine the content. 'The medium is the message.' (McLuhan).
Time to take a step back. Time to find the right level of abstraction for our projects, our articulations. Time to learn to understand what we can do with information, what the code is that can play all these channels. It, the code, brings about a new substrate. With it, we can learn seriously, and at the same time fantastically. Cross-media story telling. We want to learn to cultivate the logical channels (exactly not the magical channels [McLuhan, 1964], and not the sacred channels [Hörl, 2006], and neither a metaphysics of mediality [Krämer, 2009]), so as to be able to create the fantastical.

module 5 C application: Building Information Models

palmgarden

The construction industry is under increasing pressure from economists. They, not unreasonably, want to know what it is that they'll get, when they'll get it, at what price and to what specification. To the end of quantitative transparency, so called Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) were formulated in 1995 by American and European AEC (Architecture Engineering and Construction) firms and promoted worldwide by the institution buildingSMART in 2005. The IFC derives from the production information model standards IGES and STEP from the year 1980. IFC pursues a hypothesis that it is possible to describe every building that has ever been built, as well as every building that is ever going to be built, no matter in which part of the world or culture it happens to be, by a hierarchical system of pre-defined formulas. This, to us, seems somewhat crazy.
These long-term efforts, within a set-up that is in itself adventurous, lead to a situation where technicians draw up more and more tables into which practitioners make more and more erroneous entries, if they are using them at all. Yet still economists demand this type of solution, because it has been shown to work in other industries, and so they increasingly cause a reduction of architecture to simplistic quantities.
Wikipedia, Google and the success stories of the internet in general demonstrate a different path towards solutions. There is no technological need for tables, nor for strict hierarchies, there is no reason for specifications before designing a building just in order to enable transparencies and comparison and with it open competition and quality standards. So how can buildings be modelled in such a way that effective cost management is possible early on in the planning, while allowing for the prerequisite architectural freedom? How is it possible to model in such a way that buildings can be compared with each other? So that learnings and experiences can quickly and efficiently be applied to other projects? So that jobs and mistakes don't have to be repeated three, five, a hundred or a thousand times?

module 5 A research Design and Construction with Customised Materials - Printed Physics

palmgarden

Material availability - the explosion of materials - the search for construction that is appropriate to materials - no longer boiled, refined, concentrated, arduous, cleansed - materials are being thought up and made, drawn from the earth, in controlled processes. The most explicit manifestation of this is found in doping, the deliberate adding of impurities - materials achieve what we've never been able to achieve through continuities: they turn sunlight into electricity, they glow, shine, gleam, oscillate, move, see, smell, hear, sound, absorb, concentrate, switch, operate logically... simply because we've coded them, doped them.

This module conveys, by way of exercises, the methods of material doping. What we are looking for are material constructions which articulate these constructed material properties into new kinds of constructions. Processing, wiring, CNC production.

 

module 6 B development: Population

depp

How can we evaluate all these cross-media narratives? Is it sufficient for something to work, for something to be correct, for it to have been checked, said out loud and clear, in a world of logical channels? Can we find stabilities in fixing, in referencing, in illustrating, in looking, if everything is absorbed in logical channels? Here, stability and order can no longer be found, they have to be made. In the repetitions (Deleuze, 1968), in the populations, in exercises (Sloterdijk, 2009), in the ever renewed narratives, in the differences in time, in space, in the articulations of the various channels.

What, though, is it that needs to be told in order to create stabilities across these various channels, to popularise a narrative, to make a story valuable. We can't invent any new stories. So, what can we rely on? We have to pass them on, the big stories, tell them afresh, modulate them. Body, life, love, power, friendship, hospitality, fertility, security, contemplation, freedom, fear, joy, nature, death, age, equilibrium, health, childhood, vitality, progress, youth, intelligence, landscape, nutrition...

So how do journalists, political scientists, sociologists, economists, communication scientists deal with this situation? How does Nestlé, for example, tell the narrative of body and hospitality, Siemens the narrative of technology and progress, what's the story of Apple, of SAP, of IBM, what's the story about the knowledge of Google, the novelty of Facebook, what is the technology story as told by MIT, what the story of history and values of Harvard, what is Marlboro's story about freedom, what's the story that liberalism tells us about the history of ethics, what does Swiss Re tell us about security, what Nike about our bodies, what does Formula 1 tell us, what BMW about motion, what the French revolution about freedom, what's the story that Marxism tells us... What are the channels that are successfully being played by H&M, Toyota, Novartis, Nokia, IBM, SAP, Google, by the Louvre, by Harvard, by UBS, Walt Disney, by Rem Koolhaas?

 

module 7 theory: Information and I

palmgarden

It's not easy, finding your own position as an architect. With our technologies, we accelerate everything: more people, more mobility, more television, more images, more phones, more networks, more research, more publications, more complexity, more statistics, more rubbish, more technology, more advertising, more consumerism... Google, Twitter, games, leisure, over-ageing, privacy, intellectual property, corporate communications, global village, mega-cities, economy drives, liberalism, marketing, entertainment, war architecture... It's easy to think that all this could be halted, that it could all slow down, that it is possible to cast an anchor an arrest the movement. Sustainability, misery, crisis, scarce resources, nature, empathy, renunciation, limitation, insurance, reassurance, delegation, the original, the origin, territory, land, causes, simplicity, clarity, guilt, regeneration, recycling, recreation, creation, simplicity, materials-appropriate construction... but information technology is of a different 'nature'. Which is why our old concepts are not sufficient to grasp it or its phenomena. Just as described in the fable of the Hare and the Tortoise: the hare kills himself running and the tortoise doesn't even get out of breath. That's exactly what we're witnessing: we feel washed away every time we try to cast an anchor, within the sea of our old conceptions. And so, adrift, we keep looking for an equilibrium in arranging our belongings. But how about, instead of casting anchors, we learn to surf?